LAB 9 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

1. Dissection of wing
Cutting the skin away from the muscle of the chicken wing
Showing of the chicken's muscles underneath the skin

Labeling of the chicken's bones underneath the muscles.
2. Comparative anatomy of arm vs wing
Labeled bones in the Chicken Wing
Comparison of Humerus and Carpals in a bird and a human:
Answer: Both bones are relatively in the same location in both the bird and the human. They do look different however, and are adapted to work for different purposes for each organism.
How many bones per phalanges in humans? There are 14 Phalanges in the human foot
How many metacarpals? Humans have 10 metacarpals, 5 in each hand.
3. Comparative anatomy of bone structure

1. Describe the internal structure of the bird and human bones: Bird bones are pourous or even hollow in the center which enables them to fly. Birds bones however, are just as heavy as normal bones of a mammal or anything the size of that bird. This is because bird bones are stronger due to their density, so they may be hollow, but they are just as strong and weigh the same Human bones has a few layers; the outer layer is a thin membrane layer that contains nerves and blood vessels to bring nutrients to your bones. The next layer is the actual bone that supports your structure. the next layer is the spongy pourous material, and beneath that is the bone marrow which makes blood cells.
2. Why do you suppose bird bones are so hollow? Their bones are hollow so that they can be able to fly and not be weighed down by the weight of normal bones.

3. summarize what information can be gathered from
a. bones: We are able to gather raw data from fossilized bones. From them we can determine bone growth, structure, and lifestyles of the organism
b. growth rates: can be found viewing the organization of the material inside the bone. The more organized the bones materials, the slower the growth rate of the animal.
c. longevities: The older an animal is the bigger it usually is speaking about dinosaurs. Growth at the very beginning of life is very slow, but then it becomes very rapid and then caps off or slows down if not completely stops toward the end of life.
d. growth strategies: Growth rates can be compared by using an S-curve graph. A method that is used to calculate growth rates by combining mass calculations with bone histology. Histology is basically obtaining the age of a living thing by counting its structures.