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Lab 1 Technology
Lab 10 Plants
Lab 11 Ecology
Lab 2 Rocks
Lab 3 Water
lab 4 DNA
Lab 5 Probability
Lab 6 forensic DNA
Lab 7 Microbes
Lab 8 Anatomy
Lab 9 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
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lab 4 DNA
Exercise 1. DNA Replication
Take a picture of each step of your "setup" , label and put this in your wikibook with an explanation of what is happening.
The red and green pipe cleaners are the super coiled DNA strand. the white pipe cleaner wrapped around the DNA strand is the enzyme that initiates the unwinding of the DNA by clipping the DNA backbone.
The white pipe cleaner represents the enzyme that separates the double strand of DNA by melting the hydrogen bonds that hold the base together.
The tan bead attached to the helicase white pipe cleaner is called the RNA Primase. This enzyme makes a short RNA segment (called a primer) that is complementary to the DNA strand at specific sites. It primes for DNA replication because it provides an -OH for DNA polymerase to attach the first DNA nucleotide. The RNA primer is removed and later fills the gap with DNA nucleotides.
The two beads attached to the two additional DNA strands are the multi-functional enzymes that bing to one side of the DNA and guide nucleotides to bind with their complementary pair and forges the covalent bonds of the backbone between the sugars and the phosphates.
The chartruse bear on the newly created DNA strand represents the enzyme that forges the covalent bonds of the backbone between sugars and phosphates. It does this when there is a gap like when the RNA primer is removed.
EXERCISE 2. DNA EXTRACTION
Take a picture of your DNA extraction for your wikibook.
In the document under the picture label the picture "DNA extraction from wheat germ".
In addition, go online and find 3 different ways to PROVE that the substance you extracted is actually DNA, something that will stain the DNA. Write a short summary of the methods and indicate if any are non-toxic. All this goes into your document labeled "DNA". As usual this is an individual work product, do not share what you write with your lab partners, do not plagiarize from online sources.
DNA extraction from wheat germ
3 ways to prove that a substance is indeed DNA:
1. SYBR safe DNA gel stain
is a sensative DNA detector that when applied to a DNA substance turns florescent green indicating that the substance is indeed DNA. It will turn green when the gel reacts to properties only found in true DNA. This product does have a toxicity to it, however, it is less toxic than other DNA gel stains because it was developed specifically for reduced mutogenicity. This is safer than ethidium bromide commonly used in more toxic stains.
: This DNA stain is an easy way to identify DNA. When the chemical is applied to a DNA substance, it will turn florescent orange when exposed to ultra violent light. Ethidium Bromided is highly toxic and is very dangerous to inexperienced users. It can enter the body through the skin and through breathing in the toxic fumes.
Nile Blue Phospate
: This is a safe and easy to use DNA stainer that when applied to a DNA substance turns the DNA blue. This stain is less toxic than Ethidium Bromide. THis is a good product because it doesn't inhibit DNA activity at all.
EXERCISE 3: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS
Lay out the 2N-4N-2N and 2N-4N-2N-1N arrangements, take pictures and put in your lab wikibook.
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